عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of the study is to investigate the possibility of applying the “reflexive traditionalism” concept with the empirical study of social and political life Mirza Malkam Khan (1833-1908), the thinker, politician and reformer of Iran in the 19th century. The research method is bibliographical and has been carried out with the help of historical documents. The life and work of Malkam was examined with a focus on three aspects of his life: firstly, Malkam as the forerunner of the intellectual movement in Iran; Secondly, Malkam's thoughts on the party and the party organization and, thirdly, the reduction of social problems at the level of the political and ultimately the power relations, which is referred to here as politicization. Malkam was the forerunner of intellectuals in Iran, but he was not an intellectual. He represented the new group of public servants who came into existence during the 19th century, and tried to reform the old state apparatus. The organization's concept of Malkam was the leader's concentrated management style, which has been known forever in the Orient. The fundamental cleavage between social conditions and political demands led to the politicization of his way of thinking. The results of the research showed the efforts of Malkam failed. His organization's understanding was influenced by despotic ideas. The results of the study showed that Malkam was the first to try to elucidate the role of intellectuals and the importance of the organization to political participation in Iran.